# Terminology & Information Model¶

When biologists define terms in order to describe phenomena and observations, they rely on a background of human experience and intelligence for interpretation. Definitions may be abstract, perhaps correctly reflecting uncertainty of our understanding at the time. Unfortunately, such terms are not readily translatable into an unambiguous representation of knowledge.

For example, “allele” might refer to “an alternative form of a gene or locus” [Wikipedia], “one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene” [ISOGG], or “one of a set of coexisting sequence alleles of a gene” [Sequence Ontology]. Even for human interpretation, these definitions are inconsistent: does the definition precisely describe a specific change on a specific sequence, or, rather, a more general change on an undefined sequence? In addition, all three definitions are inconsistent with the practical need for a way to describe sequence changes outside regions associated with genes.

The computational representation of biological concepts requires translating precise biological definitions into information models and data structures that may be used in software. This translation should result in a representation of information that is consistent with conventional biological understanding and, ideally, be able to accommodate future data as well. The resulting computational representation of information should also be cognizant of computational performance, the minimization of opportunities for misunderstanding, and ease of manipulating and transforming data.

Accordingly, for each term we define below, we begin by describing the term as used by the genetics and/or bioinformatics communities as available. When a term has multiple such definitions, we explicitly choose one of them for the purposes of computational modelling. We then define the computational definition that reformulates the community definition in terms of information content. Finally, we translate each of these computational definitions into precise specifications for the (information model). Terms are ordered “bottom-up” so that definitions depend only on previously-defined terms.

Note

The keywords “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

## Information Model Principles¶

• VRS uses snake_case to represent compound words. Although the schema is currently JSON-based (which would typically use camelCase), VRS itself is intended to be neutral with respect to languages and database.
• VRS objects are minimal value objects. Two objects are considered equal if and only if their respective attributes are equal. As value objects, VRS objects are used as primitive types and MUST NOT be used as containers for related data, such as primary database accessions, representations in particular formats, or links to external data. Instead, related data should be associated with VRS objects through identifiers. See Computed Identifiers.
• Error handling is intentionally unspecified and delegated to implementation. VRS provides foundational data types that enable significant flexibility. Except where required by this specification, implementations may choose whether and how to validate data. For example, implementations MAY choose to validate that particular combinations of objects are compatible, but such validation is not required.
• Optional attributes start with an underscore. Optional attributes are not part of the value object. Such attributes are not considered when evaluating equality or creating computed identifiers. The _id attribute is available to identifiable objects, and MAY be used by an implementation to store the identifier for a VRS object. If used, the stored _id element MUST be a CURIE. If used for creating a Truncated Digest (sha512t24u) for parent objects, the stored element must be a GA4GH Computed Identifier. Implementations MUST ignore attributes beginning with an underscore and they SHOULD NOT transmit objects containing them.

## Variation¶

In the genetics community, variation is often used to mean sequence variation, describing the differences observed in DNA or AA bases among individuals, and typically with respect to a common reference sequence.

In VRS, the Variation class is the conceptual root of all types of variation, and the Variation abstract class is the top-level object in the Current Variation Representation Specfication Schema. Variation types are broadly categorized as Molecular Variation, Systemic Variation, or a utility subclass. Types of variation are widely varied, and there are several Variation Classes currently under consideration to capture this diversity.

Computational Definition

A representation of the state of one or more molecules.

### Molecular Variation¶

A Variation of a sequence that represents a portion of or an entire contiguous molecule.

#### Allele¶

Note

The terms allele and variant are often used interchangeably, although this use may mask subtle distinctions made by some users. Specifically, while allele connotes a specific sequence state, variant connotes a change between states.

This distinction makes it awkward to use variant to represent an unchanged (refrence-agreement) state at a Sequence Location. This was a primary factor for choosing to use allele over variant when designing VRS. Read more about this design decision: Using Allele Rather than Variant.

An allele may refer to a number of alternative forms of the same gene or same genetic locus. In the genetics community, allele may also refer to a specific haplotype. In the context of biological sequences, “allele” refers to a distinct state of a molecule at a location.

Computational Definition

A state of a molecule at a Location.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Variation Id; MUST be unique within document
type string 1..1 MUST be “Allele”
location Location | CURIE 1..1 Where Allele is located
state Sequence Expression | SequenceState (deprecated) 1..1 An expression of the sequence state

Implementation Guidance

• The Sequence Expression and Location subclasses respectively represent diverse kinds of sequence changes and mechanisms for describing the locations of those changes, including varying levels of precision of sequence location and categories of sequence changes.
• Implementations MUST enforce values interval.end ≤ sequence_length when the Sequence length is known.
• Alleles are equal only if the component fields are equal: at the same location and with the same state.
• Alleles MAY have multiple related representations on the same Sequence type due to normalization differences.
• Implementations SHOULD normalize Alleles using fully-justified normalization whenever possible to facilitate comparisons of variation in regions of representational ambiguity.
• Implementations MUST normalize Alleles using fully-justified normalization when generating Computed Identifiers.
• When the alternate Sequence is the same length as the interval, the lengths of the reference Sequence and imputed Sequence are the same. (Here, imputed sequence means the sequence derived by applying the Allele to the reference sequence.) When the replacement Sequence is shorter than the length of the interval, the imputed Sequence is shorter than the reference Sequence, and conversely for replacements that are larger than the interval.
• When the state is a LiteralSequenceExpression of "" (the empty string), the Allele refers to a deletion at this location.
• The Allele entity is based on Sequence and is intended to be used for intragenic and extragenic variation. Alleles are not explicitly associated with genes or other features.
• Biologically, referring to Alleles is typically meaningful only in the context of empirical alternatives. For modelling purposes, Alleles MAY exist as a result of biological observation or computational simulation, i.e., virtual Alleles.
• “Single, contiguous” refers the representation of the Allele, not the biological mechanism by which it was created. For instance, two non-adjacent single residue Alleles could be represented by a single contiguous multi-residue Allele.
• When a trait has a known genetic basis, it is typically represented computationally as an association with an Allele.
• This specification’s definition of Allele applies to any Location, including locations on RNA or protein Sequence.

Examples

{
"location": {
"interval": {
"end": 44908822,
"start": 44908821,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"type": "SequenceLocation"
},
"state": {
"sequence": "T",
"type": "LiteralSequenceExpression"
},
"type": "Allele"
}


Sources

#### Haplotype¶

Haplotypes are a specific combination of Alleles that are in-cis: occurring on the same physical molecule. Haplotypes are commonly described with respect to locations on a gene, a set of nearby genes, or other physically proximal genetic markers that tend to be transmitted together.

Computational Definition

A set of non-overlapping Allele members that co-occur on the same molecule.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Variation Id; MUST be unique within document
type string 1..1 MUST be “Haplotype”
members Allele[] | CURIE[] 1..* List of Alleles, or references to Alleles, that comprise this Haplotype

Implementation Guidance

• Haplotypes are an assertion of Alleles known to occur “in cis” or “in phase” with each other.
• All Alleles in a Haplotype MUST be defined on the same reference sequence or chromosome.
• Alleles within a Haplotype MUST not overlap (“overlap” is defined in Interval).
• The locations of Alleles within the Haplotype MUST be interpreted independently. Alleles that create a net insertion or deletion of sequence MUST NOT change the location of “downstream” Alleles.
• The members attribute is required and MUST contain at least one Allele.
• Haplotypes with one Allele are intended to be distinct entities from the Allele by itself. See discussion on Equivalence Between Concepts.

Sources

• ISOGG: Haplotype — A haplotype is a combination of alleles (DNA sequences) at different places (loci) on the chromosome that are transmitted together. A haplotype may be one locus, several loci, or an entire chromosome depending on the number of recombination events that have occurred between a given set of loci.
• SequenceOntology: haplotype (SO:0001024) — A haplotype is one of a set of coexisting sequence variants of a haplotype block.
• GENO: Haplotype (GENO:0000871) - A set of two or more sequence alterations on the same chromosomal strand that tend to be transmitted together.

Examples

An APOE-ε1 Haplotype with inline Alleles:

{
"members": [
{
"location": {
"interval": {
"end": 44908684,
"start": 44908683,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"type": "SequenceLocation"
},
"state": {
"sequence": "C",
"type": "LiteralSequenceExpression"
},
"type": "Allele"
},
{
"location": {
"interval": {
"end": 44908822,
"start": 44908821,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"type": "SequenceLocation"
},
"state": {
"sequence": "T",
"type": "LiteralSequenceExpression"
},
"type": "Allele"
}
],
"type": "Haplotype"
}


The same APOE-ε1 Haplotype with referenced Alleles:

{
"members": [
"ga4gh:VA.iXjilHZiyCEoD3wVMPMXG3B8BtYfL88H",
"ga4gh:VA.EgHPXXhULTwoP4-ACfs-YCXaeUQJBjH_"
],
"type": "Haplotype"
}


The GA4GH computed identifier for these Haplotypes is ga4gh:VH.NAVnEuaP9gf41OxnPM56XxWQfdFNcUxJ, regardless of whether the Variation objects are inlined or referenced, and regardless of order. See Computed Identifiers for more information.

### Systemic Variation¶

Systemic Variation is a Variation of multiple molecules in the context of a system, e.g. a genome, sample, or homologous chromosomes.

#### Abundance¶

Abundance is the measure of a quantity of a molecule in a system. Copy Number and gene expression variants are two common types of abundance variation, measuring the copies of a molecule present in a genome or expressed in a sample, respectively.

##### CopyNumber¶

Copy Number captures the copies of a molecule within a genome, and can be used to express concepts such as amplification and copy loss.

Computational Definition

The count of copies of a Feature or Molecular Variation subject within a genome.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Computed Identifier
type string 1..1 MUST be “CopyNumber”
subject Molecular Variation | Feature 1..1 Subject of the abundance statement
copies AbsoluteCopyCount 1..1 The integral number of copies of the subject in the genome

Example

Two, three, or four total copies of BRCA1:

{
"copies": {
"max": 4,
"min": 2,
"type": "AbsoluteCopyCount"
},
"subject": {
"gene_id": "ncbigene:672",
"type": "Gene"
},
"type": "CopyNumber"
}


### Utility Variation¶

Utility variation is a collection of Variation subclasses that cannot be constrained to a specific class of biological variation, but are necessary for some technical applications of VRS.

#### Text¶

Some forms of variation are described with text that is interpretable only by humans.

Computational Definition

A free-text definition of variation.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Variation Id; MUST be unique within document
type string 1..1 MUST be “Text”
definition string 1..1 The textual variation representation not representable by other subclasses of Variation.

Implementation Guidance

• An implementation MUST represent Variation with subclasses other than Text if possible.
• Because the Text type can be easily abused, implementations are NOT REQUIRED to provide it. If it is provided, implementations SHOULD consider applying access controls.
• If a future version of VRS is adopted by an implementation and the new version enables defining existing Text objects under a different Variation subclass, the implementation MUST construct a new object under the other Variation subclass. In such a case, an implementation SHOULD persist the original Text object and respond to queries matching the Text object with the new object.
• Additional Variation subclasses are continually under consideration. Please open a GitHub issue if you would like to propose a Variation subclass to cover a needed variation representation.

Examples

{
"definition": "Microsatellite Instability High",
"type": "Text"
}


#### VariationSet¶

Sets of variation are used widely, such as sets of variants in dbSNP or ClinVar that might be related by function.

Computational Definition

An unconstrained set of Variation members.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Identifier of the VariationSet.
type string 1..1 MUST be “VariationSet”
members Variation[] | CURIE[] 0..* List of Variation objects or identifiers. Attribute is required, but MAY be empty.

Implementation Guidance

• The VariationSet identifier MAY be computed as described in Computed Identifiers, in which case the identifier effectively refers to a static set because a different set of members would generate a different identifier.
• members may be specified as Variation objects or CURIE identifiers.
• CURIEs MAY refer to entities outside the ga4gh namespace. However, objects that use non-ga4gh identifiers MAY NOT use the Computed Identifiers mechanism.
• VariationSet identifiers computed using the GA4GH Computed Identifiers process do not depend on whether the Variation objects are inlined or referenced, and do not depend on the order of members.
• Elements of members must be subclasses of Variation, which permits sets to be nested.
• Recursive sets are not meaningful and are not supported.
• VariationSets may be empty.

Examples

{
"members": [
"ga4gh:VA.6xjH0Ikz88s7MhcyN5GJTa1p712-M10W",
"ga4gh:VA.7k2lyIsIsoBgRFPlfnIOeCeEgj_2BO7F",
"ga4gh:VA.ikcK330gH3bYO2sw9QcTsoptTFnk_Xjh"
],
"type": "VariationSet"
}


The GA4GH computed identifier for these sets is ga4gh:VS.WVC_R7OJ688EQX3NrgpJfsf_ctQUsVP3, regardless of the whether the Variation objects are inlined or referenced, and regardless of order. See Computed Identifiers for more information.

## Locations and Intervals¶

### Location¶

As used by biologists, the precision of “location” (or “locus”) varies widely, ranging from precise start and end numerical coordinates defining a Location, to bounded regions of a sequence, to conceptual references to named genomic features (e.g., chromosomal bands, genes, exons) as proxies for the Locations on an implied reference sequence.

The most common and concrete Location is a SequenceLocation, i.e., a Location based on a named sequence and an Interval on that sequence. Another common Location is a ChromosomeLocation, specifying a location from cytogenetic coordinates of stained metaphase chromosomes. Additional Intervals and Locations may also be conceptual or symbolic locations, such as a cytoband region or a gene. Any of these may be used as the Location for Variation.

Computational Definition

The position of a contiguous segment of a biological sequence.

Implementation Guidance

• Location refers to a position. Although it MAY imply a sequence, the two concepts are not interchangeable, especially when the location is non-specific (e.g., specified by a NestedInterval).

#### ChromosomeLocation¶

Chromosomal locations based on named features, including named landmarks, cytobands, and regions observed from chromosomal staining techniques.

Computational Definition

A Location, on a chromosome defined by a species and chromosome name.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Location id; MUST be unique within document
type string 1..1 MUST be “ChromosomeLocation”
species CURIE 1..1 An external reference to a species taxonomy. Default: “taxonomy:9606” (human). See Implementation Guidance, below.
chr string 1..1 The symbolic chromosome name
interval CytobandInterval 1..1 The chromosome region based on feature names

Implementation Guidance

• ChromosomeLocation is intended to enable the representation of cytogenetic results from karyotyping or low-resolution molecular methods, particularly those found in older scientific literature. Precise SequenceLocation should be preferred when nucleotide-scale location is known.
• species is specified using the NCBI taxonomy. The CURIE prefix MUST be “taxonomy”, corresponding to the NCBI taxonomy prefix at identifiers.org, and the CURIE reference MUST be an NCBI taxonomy identifier (e.g., 9606 for Homo sapiens).
• ChromosomeLocation is intended primarily for human chromosomes. Support for other species is possible and will be considered based on community feedback.
• chromosome is an archetypal chromosome name. Valid values for, and the syntactic structure of, chromosome depends on the species. chromosome MUST be an official sequence name from NCBI Assembly. For humans, valid chromosome names are 1..22, X, Y (case-sensitive).
• interval refers to a contiguous region specified named markers, which are presumed to exist on the specified chromosome. See CytobandInterval for additional information.
• The conversion of ChromosomeLocation instances to SequenceLocation instances is out-of-scope for VRS. When converting start and end to SequenceLocations, the positions MUST be interpreted as inclusive ranges that cover the maximal extent of the region.
• Data for converting cytogenetic bands to precise sequence coordinates are available at NCBI GDP, UCSC GRCh37 (hg19), UCSC GRCh38 (hg38), and bioutils (Python).

Examples

{
"chr": "11",
"interval": {
"end": "q22.3",
"start": "q22.2",
"type": "CytobandInterval"
},
"species_id": "taxonomy:9606",
"type": "ChromosomeLocation"
}


#### SequenceLocation¶

A Sequence Location is a specified subsequence of a reference Sequence. The reference is typically a chromosome, transcript, or protein sequence.

Computational Definition

A Location defined by an interval on a referenced Sequence.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
_id CURIE 0..1 Location id; MUST be unique within document
type string 1..1 MUST be “SequenceLocation”
sequence_id CURIE 1..1 A VRS Computed Identifier for the reference Sequence.
interval SequenceInterval 1..1 Position of feature on reference sequence specified by sequence_id.

Implementation Guidance

• For a Sequence of length n:
• 0 ≤ interval.startinterval.endn
• inter-residue coordinate 0 refers to the point before the start of the Sequence
• inter-residue coordinate n refers to the point after the end of the Sequence.
• Coordinates MUST refer to a valid Sequence. VRS does not support referring to intronic positions within a transcript sequence, extrapolations beyond the ends of sequences, or other implied sequence.

Important

HGVS permits variants that refer to non-existent sequence. Examples include coordinates extrapolated beyond the bounds of a transcript and intronic sequence. Such variants are not representable using VRS and MUST be projected to a genomic reference in order to be represented.

Examples

{
"interval": {
"end": 44908822,
"start": 44908821,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"type": "SequenceLocation"
}


### SequenceInterval¶

Computational Definition

The SequenceInterval abstract class defines a range on a Sequence, possibly with length zero, and specified using Inter-residue Coordinates. An Interval MAY be a SimpleInterval with a single start and end coordinate. Future Location and SequenceInterval types will enable other methods for describing where Variation occurs. Any of these MAY be used as the SequenceInterval for Location.

Sources

#### SimpleInterval¶

Computational Definition

A SequenceInterval with a single start and end coordinate.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “SimpleInterval”
start integer 1..1 start position
end integer 1..1 end position

Implementation Guidance

• Implementations MUST enforce values 0 ≤ start ≤ end. In the case of double-stranded DNA, this constraint holds even when a feature is on the complementary strand.

• VRS uses Inter-residue coordinates because they provide conceptual consistency that is not possible with residue-based systems (see rationale). Implementations will need to convert between inter-residue and 1-based inclusive residue coordinates familiar to most human users.

• Inter-residue coordinates start at 0 (zero).

• The length of an interval is end - start.

• An interval in which start == end is a zero width point between two residues.

• An interval of length == 1 MAY be colloquially referred to as a position.

• Two intervals are equal if the their start and end coordinates are equal.

• Two intervals intersect if the start or end coordinate of one is strictly between the start and end coordinates of the other. That is, if:

• b.start < a.start < b.end OR
• b.start < a.end < b.end OR
• a.start < b.start < a.end OR
• a.start < b.end < a.end
• Two intervals a and b coincide if they intersect or if they are equal (the equality condition is REQUIRED to handle the case of two identical zero-width SimpleIntervals).

• <start, end>=<0,0> refers to the point with width zero before the first residue.

• <start, end>=<i,i+1> refers to the i+1th (1-based) residue.

• <start, end>=<N,N> refers to the position after the last residue for Sequence of length N.

• See example notebooks in GA4GH VRS Python Implementation.

Examples

{
"end": 44908822,
"start": 44908821,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
}


#### NestedInterval¶

For some assays, it is not possible to describe a SequenceLocation with exact precision, but it is possible to bound the region containing the Sequence Location. In those cases, two sets of coordinates are used as a nested interval to describe the inner and outer bounds.

Computational Definition

A SequenceInterval defined by nested inner and outer SimpleInterval coordinates. Inner and outer coordinates represent inner and outer bounds of ambiguity for the start and end of the interval.

Information Model

NestedInterval
Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “NestedInterval”
inner SimpleInterval 1..1 inner interval
outer SimpleInterval 1..1 outer interval

Implementation Guidance

• NestedInterval is intended to be used for variation where the start and end positions each occur within ranges.
• inner and outer must be defined, but the start and end within each may be null.
• If start and end attributes of inner and outer are defined, they MUST satisfy outer.start <= inner.start <= inner.end <= outer.end

Examples

{
"inner": {
"end": 30,
"start": 20,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"outer": {
"end": 40,
"start": 10,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"type": "NestedInterval"
}


### CytobandInterval¶

Important

VRS currently supports only human cytobands and cytoband intervals. Implementers wishing to use VRS for other cytogenetic systems are encouraged to open a GitHub issue.

Cytobands refer to regions of chromosomes that are identified by visible patterns on stained metaphase chromosomes. They provide a convenient, memorable, and low-resolution shorthand for chromosomal segments.

Computational Definition

An interval on a stained metaphase chromosome, specified by cytobands. CytobandIntervals include the regions described by the start and end cytobands.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “CytobandInterval”
start HumanCytoband 1..1 name of Cytoband at the interval start (see below)
end HumanCytoband 1..1 name of Cytoband at the interval end (see below)

Implementation Guidance

• When using CytobandInterval to refer to human cytogentic bands, the following conventions MUST be used. Bands are denoted by the arm (“p” or “q”) and position (e.g., “22”, “22.3”, or the symbolic values “cen” or “ter”) per ISCN conventions [1]. These conventions identify cytobands in order from the centromere towards the telomeres. In VRS, we order cytoband coordinates in the p-ter → cen → q-ter orientation, analogous to sequence coordinates. This has the consequence that bands on the p-arm are represented in descending numerical order when selecting cytobands for start and end.

Examples

{
"end": "p22.1",
"start": "p22.3",
"type": "CytobandInterval"
}


## Sequence Expression¶

VRS provides several syntaxes for expressing a sequence, collectively referred to as Sequence Expressions. They are:

Some SequenceExpression instances may appear to resolve to the same sequence, but are intended to be semantically distinct. There MAY be reasons to select or enforce one form over another that SHOULD be managed by implementations. See discussion on Equivalence Between Concepts.

### LiteralSequenceExpression¶

A LiteralSequenceExpression “wraps” a string representation of a sequence for parallelism with other SequenceExpressions.

Computational Definition

An explicit expression of a Sequence.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “LiteralSequenceExpression”
sequence Sequence 1..1 The sequence to express

Example

{
"sequence": "ACGT",
"type": "LiteralSequenceExpression"
}


### DerivedSequenceExpression¶

Certain mechanisms of variation result from relocating and transforming sequence from another location in the genome. A derived sequence is a mechanism for expressing (typically large) reference subsequences specified by a SequenceLocation.

Computational Definition

An expression of a sequence that is derived from a referenced sequence location.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “DerivedSequenceExpression”
location SequenceLocation 1..1 The location describing the sequence

Example

{
"location": {
"interval": {
"end": 33,
"start": 22,
"type": "SimpleInterval"
},
"sequence_id": "ga4gh:SQ.0123abcd",
"type": "SequenceLocation"
},
"type": "DerivedSequenceExpression"
}


### RepeatedSequenceExpression¶

Repeated Sequence is a class of sequence expression where a specified subsequence is repeated multiple times in tandem. Microsatellites are an example of a common class of repeated sequence, but repeated sequence can also be used to describe larger subsequence repeats, up to and including large-scale tandem duplications.

Computational Definition

An expression of a sequence comprised of a tandem repeating subsequence.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “RepeatedSequenceExpression”
seq_expr Sequence Expression 1..1 an expression of the repeating subsequence
count AbsoluteCopyCount 1..1 the inclusive range count of repeated units

Example

{
"count": {
"max": 10,
"min": 5,
"type": "AbsoluteCopyCount"
},
"seq_expr": {
"sequence": "CAG",
"type": "LiteralSequenceExpression"
},
"type": "RepeatedSequenceExpression"
}


## Feature¶

A Feature is a named entity that can be mapped to a Location. Genes, protein domains, exons, and chromosomes are some examples of common biological entities that may be Features.

### Gene¶

A gene is a basic and fundamental unit of heritability. Genes are functional regions of heritable DNA or RNA that include transcript coding regions, regulatory elements, and other functional sequence domains. Because of the complex nature of these many components comprising a gene, the interpretation of a gene is context dependent.

Computational definition

A gene is an authoritative representation of one or more heritable Locations that includes all sequence elements necessary to perform a biological function. A gene may include regulatory, transcribed, and/or other functional Locations.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
gene_id CURIE 1..1 Authoritative Gene ID (see guidance)
type string 1..1 MUST be “Gene”

Implementation guidance

• Gene symbols (e.g., “BRCA1”) are unreliable keys. Implementations MUST NOT use a gene symbol to define a Gene.

• A gene is specific to a species. Gene orthologs have distinct records in the recommended databases. For example, the BRCA1 gene in humans and the Brca1 gene in mouse are orthologs and have distinct records in the recommended gene databases.

• Implementations MUST use authoritative gene namespaces available from identifiers.org whenever possible. Examples include:

• The hgnc namespace is RECOMMENDED for human variation in order to improve interoperability.

• Gene MAY be converted to one or more Locations using external data. The source of such data and mechanism for implementation is not defined by this specification.

• See discussion on Equivalence Between Concepts.

Example

The following examples all refer to the human BRCA1 gene:

{
'gene_id': 'ncbigene:672',
'type': 'Gene'
}


Gene is intended to be used as a subject of gene-level annotations, such as this statement of increased copy number of BRCA1:

{
"copies": {
"min": 3,
"type": "AbsoluteCopyCount"
},
"subject": {
"gene_id": "ncbigene:672",
"type": "Gene"
},
"type": "AbsoluteCopyCount"
}


Sources

• SequenceOntology: gene (SO:0000704) — A region (or regions) that includes all of the sequence elements necessary to encode a functional transcript. A gene may include regulatory regions, transcribed regions and/or other functional sequence regions.

## Quantity¶

A value indicating a multitude or magnitude measure.

### AbsoluteCopyCount¶

Computational Definition

An integer count of copies. Counts are bounded ranges denoted by minimum and maximum possible values. Absolute copy number counts may not be smaller than zero.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “AbsoluteCopyCount”
min integer 1..1 minimum value; inclusive
max integer 1..1 maximum value; inclusive

Implementation Guidance

• If both min and max MUST satisfy min <= max.
• If min == max, then the range specifies a single numeric amount.
• Both min and max MUST be non-negative

Examples

{
"max": 4,
"min": 0,
"type": "AbsoluteCopyCount",
}


## Primitive Concepts¶

### CURIE¶

Computational Definition

A CURIE formatted string. A CURIE string has the structure prefix:reference (W3C Terminology).

Implementation Guidance

• All identifiers in VRS MUST be a valid Compact URI (CURIE), regardless of whether the identifier refers to GA4GH VRS objects or external data.
• For GA4GH VRS objects, this specification RECOMMENDS using globally unique Computed Identifiers for use within and between systems.
• For external data, CURIE-formatted identifiers MUST be used. When an appropriate namespace exists at identifiers.org, that namespace MUST be used. When an appropriate namespace does not exist at identifiers.org, support is implementation-dependent. That is, implementations MAY choose whether and how to support informal or local namespaces.
• Implementations MUST use CURIE identifiers verbatim. Implementations MAY NOT modify CURIEs in any way (e.g., case-folding).

Examples

Identifiers for GRCh38 chromosome 19:

ga4gh:SQ.IIB53T8CNeJJdUqzn9V_JnRtQadwWCbl
refseq:NC_000019.10
grch38:19


See Identifier Construction for examples of CURIE-based identifiers for VRS objects.

### Residue¶

A residue refers to a specific monomer within the polymeric chain of a protein or nucleic acid (Source: Wikipedia Residue page).

Computational Definition

A character representing a specific residue (i.e., molecular species) or groupings of these (“ambiguity codes”), using one-letter IUPAC abbreviations for nucleic acids and amino acids.

### Sequence¶

A sequence is a character string representation of a contiguous, linear polymer of nucleic acid or amino acid Residues. Sequences are the prevalent representation of these polymers, particularly in the domain of variant representation.

Computational Definition

A character string representing Residues using the conventional sequence order (5’-to-3’ for nucleic acid sequences, and amino-to-carboxyl for amino acid sequences) and conforming to the one-letter IUPAC abbreviations for sequence representation.

Information Model

A string constrained to match the regular expression ^[A-Z*\-]*$, derived from the IUPAC one-letter nucleic acid and amino acid codes. Implementation Guidance • Sequences MAY be empty (zero-length) strings. Empty sequences are used as the replacement Sequence for deletion Alleles. • Sequences MUST consist of only uppercase IUPAC abbreviations, including ambiguity codes. • A Sequence provides a stable coordinate system by which an Allele MAY be located and interpreted. • A Sequence MAY have several roles. A “reference sequence” is any Sequence used to define an Allele. A Sequence that replaces another Sequence is called a “replacement sequence”. • In some contexts outside VRS, “reference sequence” may refer to a member of set of sequences that comprise a genome assembly. In the VRS specification, any sequence may be a “reference sequence”, including those in a genome assembly. • For the purposes of representing sequence variation, it is not necessary that Sequences be explicitly “typed” (i.e., DNA, RNA, or AA). ### HumanCytoband¶ Cytobands are any of a pattern of stained bands, formed on chromosomes of cells undergoing metaphase, that serve to identify particular chromosomes. Human cytobands are predominantly specified by the International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN) [1]. Computational Definition A character string representing cytobands derived from the International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN) guidelines. Information Model A string constrained to match the regular expression ^cen|[pq](ter|([1-9][0-9]*(\.[1-9][0-9]*)?))$, derived from the ISCN guidelines [1].

 [1] (1, 2, 3) McGowan-Jordan J (Ed.). ISCN 2016: An international system for human cytogenomic nomenclature (2016). Karger (2016).

## Deprecated and Obsolete Classes¶

### SequenceState¶

Warning

DEPRECATED. Use LiteralSequenceExpression instead. SequenceState will be removed in VRS 2.0.

Deprecated since version 1.2.

Computational Definition

A Sequence as a State. This is the State class to use for representing “ref-alt” style variation, including SNVs, MNVs, del, ins, and delins.

Information Model

Field Type Limits Description
type string 1..1 MUST be “SequenceState”
sequence Sequence 1..1 The string of sequence residues that is to be used as the state for other types.

Examples

{
"sequence": "T",
"type": "SequenceState"
}


### State¶

Warning

OBSOLETE. State was an abstract class that was intended for future growth. It was replaced by SequenceExpressions, which subsumes the functionality envisioned for State. Because State was abstract, and therefore purely an internal concept, it was made obsolete at the same time that SequenceState was deprecated.

Deprecated since version 1.2.

Computational Definition

State objects are one of two primary components specifying a VRS Allele (in addition to Location), and the designated components for representing change (or non-change) of the features indicated by the Allele Location. As an abstract class, State currently encompasses single and contiguous Sequence changes (see SequenceState).